(a) Isobutanol production from NaHCO3 using SA579 (with integrated alsS, ilvCD, kivd and yqhD) in shake flasks without stripping. Only trace amounts (<10 mg/l) of isobutyraldehyde were detected, indicating the dehydrogenase activity of YqhD was sufficient for isobutanol production. (b) Time course for the growth of SA579. Error bars indicate s.d. (n = 3). (c) Productivity comparison of various processes. Productivities (μg l−1 h−1) of isobutyraldehyde production (this work), isobutanol production (this work), ethanol production from S. elongatus1, hydrogen production from (1) Anabaena variabilis PK84 (ref. 2), (2) Anabaena variabilis AVM13 (ref. 30), (3) Chlamydomonas reinhardtii31 (4) Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG7 (ref. 32), and lipid production from Haematococcus pluvialis3. Photo Credit: Nature Biotechnology Click image for the largest view.


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