More than another week has passed since we had a look at the Rossi/Foldari cold fusion or more accurately – low energy nuclear reaction (LENR). At that time most of the news was centered on the results offered by the professors at Bologna University who over saw the demonstration. Meanwhile others have offered that perhaps the reactor itself was packed with batteries, but the demonstration reactor doesn’t seem to be supported in a way to carry a large weight.
However one views the Rossi device, Rossi presses on to the commercial adoption and the patent process.
That brings us to the patent. One can see what is available publicly at this link taking you to the World Intellectual Property Organization.
The prime point, or item up for debate, or more importantly if commercial use becomes practical is in a quote from the application:
(Reactions) “are achieved by a method and apparatus for carrying out a highly efficient exothermal reaction between nickel atoms and hydrogen atoms, in a tube, preferably, though not exclusively made of a metal, filled by a nickel powder and heated to a high temperature preferably, though not necessarily, from 150 to 5000 C, by injecting hydrogen into said metal tube said nickel powder being pressurized, preferably, though not necessarily, to a pressure from 2 to 20 bars.
In applicant exothermal reaction the hydrogen nuclei, due to a high absorbing capability of nickel therefor, are compressed about the metal atom nuclei, while said high temperature generates internuclear percussions which are made stronger by the catalytic action of optional elements, thereby triggering a capture of a proton by the nickel powder, with a consequent transformation of nickel to copper and a beta+ decay of the latter to a nickel nucleus having a mass which is by an unit larger than that of the starting nickel.
The present inventor believes that in this reaction is possibly involved a capture of a proton by a nickel nucleus which is transformed into a copper nucleus with a consequent beta decay of the formed unstable copper (Cu 59 – 64) since the produced thermal energy is larger, as it will be thereinafter demonstrated, than the energy introduced by the electric resistance.
It is believed that the nickel nuclei are transformed to copper since the mass (energy) of the final status (copper isotope) is less than the overall mass (energy) of the starting status (nickel isotope + proton).”
The patent is a rich read to say the very least.
Now just to raise the stakes the application discloses that at the time of presentment the inventive apparatus, installed on October 16, 2007, is “at present perfectly operating 24 hours per day, and provides an amount of heat sufficient to heat the factory of the Company EON of via Carlo Ragazzi 18, at Bondeno Province of Ferrara, Italy.”
Against that the examiner opinion reels off a list of application exceptions that need repaired for approval (A pdf download). It would seem to the average reader that would be possible, and in fact the public demonstration and the results offered by the Bologna people may well be just the point for the demonstration in answering some patent objections. Without knowing the patent process protocol, the status of the patent seems in limbo awaiting some response from the Rossi attorney.
Rossi hasn’t been waiting around. As it sits reports are saying that one customer – a newly formed consortium of energy distributors – should exist in Greece, and two others in the United States. These customers will sell energy catalysts in Europe and the USA. It seems the Greek media knows the Rossi catalyser is going to affect their country.
Andrea Rossi, founder and chief technology officer at Leonardo Corporation, gets a royalty on sales. Sergio Focardi is being taken care of with a commercial agreement with Rossi.
At the core of this is a metal tube of 1-2 liters containing as yet unknown catalysts, to which approximately one gram of 99.999 percent pure nickel powder is introduced. It’s then pressurized with hydrogen to between 2 and 20 bar.
The contents are heated by an electrical resistance source at a power of about 1 kW, which is then lowered to about 700 W.
The reaction starts producing 10-12 kW of power, which in Bologna was used to heat water to 101º C. During the demonstration, 13 liters of water were vaporized in approximately one hour.
The reaction forms copper – according to Rossi, higher levels of copper than nickel have been detected after the reaction.
The observers, who could freely choose their measuring instruments, stated that:
– they attached the hydrogen to the reactor themselves
– less than one gram of hydrogen was consumed
– no hidden connections were detected
The other noteworthy point is the reactors can be connected in series to gradually raise the temperature to about 500º C, which produces vapor at the pressure of 55 bar, for turbine operation. Or they can be connected in parallel for greater energy production.
One saving grace, both for the patent application and for the commercial prospects is the secret lies primarily in materials acting as some kind of catalyst. Nickel’s reaction with hydrogen is not any kind of news, its something known and done for years. Perhaps what Rossi needs is a process application in addition to the apparatus as an invention.
What matters is Rossi seems to have the design and catalysts worked out. Lets hope so. Go Rossi, go!