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# The Faster Cheaper Cleaner Jet Engine

September 10, 2010 | 15 Comments

This writer and many of you readers are of the need for speed crowd. Lower elapsed and transit times are good for not waiting for distance to meander by. Not that meandering isn’t a worthwhile way to travel, but for economy and the reality of life its just too much time waiting for transiting and a frustration.

David Lior, general manager of a small Israeli firm called R-Jet Engineering has a speedy more efficient and maybe quieter jet engine concept in their works. Next to rockets, with both fuel and oxidizer on board – jet is as fast as this writer is willing to go. Better engines are a very exciting prospect, especially if costs can be driven down.

Today’s modern jets with bypass turbo jets nacelles burn only half as much fuel per unit of thrust as their 1960s counterparts. These engines anchored to an airframe rely on Isaac Newton’s third law of motion: for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. When a jet is running, a compressor at the front draws in air and compresses it- the action. The air is guided and diffused by static blades to allow for easier ignition into the combustion chamber where it is mixed with fuel and ignited. The reaction energy arrives from rapidly expanding hot gases, which blast out of the rear of the jet and thus drives the anchored engine and the aircraft forward. The ignited gases pass through another set of static blades, which direct and accelerate the hot gases to turn a turbine. The turbine is connected by a shaft to the compressor at the front, thus turning it and keeping the whole process running. As you can tell the non moving static diffuser and the non moving static stator are roadblocks in the way of free flowing air, fuel and exhaust gases.

R-Jet’s idea is to have the air and the ignited hot gases in the combustor rotate with the compressor and turbine. To achieve this, the company uses what it calls an orbiting combustion nozzle (OCN), which turns with the compressor to inject the air into the combustion chamber as a vortex. The vortex is maintained by blades that rotate on the inner casing of the combustor. This swirling action helps mix the air and fuel for more complete and much quicker combustion. The hot gases then exit, also in a vortex, to drive the turbine. No barrier to the actions with a diffuser or a block with stator. Free moving gases with little dynamic loss.

Dr Lior, says that eliminates the need for the two sets of static blades. It also means an OCN engine can be built more cheaply with fewer components. It would also need to be only half the size of a conventional jet of similar power. The engine would use at least 25% less fuel and, he claims, its emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide would be cut by three-quarters because of its unique ignition properties. Bold statements, indeed.

The company, founded by a group of Israeli military officials and jet-turbine experts from the former Soviet Union, has built a technology demonstrator but needs a bigger partner to take the concept further. A technical demonstrator isn’t going to put an engineering firm into the jet business. Radical changes in highly regulated fields like air transport where the installed base is almost uniform in design is a significant barrier to entry. R-Jet is working to get its OCN engines used first as generators to produce electricity or to power unmanned drones. With operating experience, the engines could then migrate to military aircraft and eventually airliners.

The big makers such as GE and Rolls Royce are not standing still. The visual change is the large fans in front of jet engines that are pulling air like a propeller and passing the air over the jet to muffle the exhaust blast sound. It’s effective if not as efficient as possible. Pulling some 90% of the working air over the whole engine at jet engine rotating speeds is a significant problem. Slower propellers are much more efficient. Both Rolls and GE are looking at alternatives like shorter counter rotating blades, Pratt and Whitney is considering reduction gears to slow the blade speeds down. Both offer improvements and considerable additional weight and mechanical load.

Those solutions would add significant cost to an engine and many more mechanical elements for breakdown, maintenance and inspection all built around the compress, diffuse, mix and ignite, stator straightening the flow and harvest regeneration energy in a now more than half century old, and well proven design.

It will be interesting to see if human syndromes like ‘not invented here’ and other emotional barriers will stop the major engine companies from seizing the opportunity that R-Jet has developed. If someone does, it could provide a giant leap forward for air travel and those wonderful short transit times for long distance travel.

That would be a good thing. Airlines have a hard time making money and fuel is a major expense. An ignition section revolution in jet engines could set up more decades of air travel improvements and put off the much of concern that the environmental crowd will get air travel into their sites for deep and steep fuel use restrictions. If we want to go far and fast for decades to come we might wish R-Jet and other innovators well.

A hat tip to EVWorld where a bit more information is available.

# Comments

15 Comments so far

[...] The Faster Cheaper Cleaner Jet Engine | New Energy and Fuel The Faster Cheaper Cleaner Jet Engine. September 10 2010 | Leave a Comment. This writer and many of you readers are of the need for speed crowd. Lower elapsed and transit times are good for not waiting for distance to meander by. Both Rolls and GE are looking at alternatives like shorter counter rotating blades, Pratt and Whitney is considering reduction gears to slow the blade speeds down. Both offer improvements and considerable additional weight and mechanical . [...]

[...] news for clean coal …Department of Ecology, TransAlta have agreed on mercury, nitrogen …The Faster Cheaper Cleaner Jet Engine | New Energy and Fuel Tags: energy, fuel, heat, hydrogen, kit, oxygen Posted in Automotive, [...]

I just added your blog site to my blogroll, I pray you would give some thought to doing the same.

What is with the trails coming off your airplane engines? Some of them disappear in less than 20 min. and some of them cloud up the entire sky. Are these chemical trails?

The trails are water vapor recondensed from the hot exhaust of the engines reentering the atmosphere. The chemistry is H2O – water.

Thanks for posting. Good to see that not everyone is using RSS feeds to build their blogs

Great read. Thanks for the info!

I’ve been checking your blog for a while now, seems like everyday I learn something new Thanks

not to be overly criticle, but there is so many varibles not being considered with the design modification with this jet engine. First, in small scale, low pressure engines (not using an impeller), it is somewhat passable not to have a diffussor enroute to the combustion chamber, if it is desgined properly, if it’s not, there goes the flame front. Second, stators are REQUIRED to run constant pressure turbine stages ( to illistrate, they look like < < < < < turbine

stator \ \ \ \ \

exhaust flow ^^^^^^) and with a multistage exhaust turbine, there will be more stator stages as well, as well as stators are required on the compression side for axial flow compressors. I mentioned this earlier, what about the flame front? Rotating rotors (redundent I know) don't swirl the gas flow as much as you think, early jet engines used can type combustion chambers with swirl generators at the throats of each chamber, this acted two fold, yes to produce swirl, but also slow down the incoming air. With this design, it's exactly the same funciton, but over a larger area, it swirls the incoming air, makes swirl in the combustion chamber and makes swirl going to the exhaust, this also SLOWS DOWN the gas while it does this. This does the function of the diffusor and the exhaust stator relitively the same, kind of, in no way do I see how this would cut down the size of engines as it actually adds length to the engine, it adds parts, complexity and requires a new design for the fuel system. Oh yes the fuel system (please tell me I'm not the only engineer here), the diagrams don't describe how fuel is being injected, as there's a swirling vortex that is the combustion chamber, this will affect how fuel is burnt dramatically, swirl in a piston engine is useful, it mixes fuel with air effectively as it is a closed space, here it is not, the fuel could bunch together and not mix with the air is this isn't desgined properly. The removal of the diffusor (on the intake side, there is one also for the exhaust to ramp up pressure) really bugs me, without it on any decent size engine (say for a light bussiness jet), the flame front would just be put out, hopefully somebody has addressed it.

A design compermise with this should be considered, as with everyone that is new to a field, don't remove parts and say, this is a roadblock, remove it, look into what it does first and reduce paristitic loses, if you haven't noticed already, this is a rant, so I am not sorry, it is needed

Sankaravelayudhanudhan Nandakumar and G.H Miley Emeritus of University of Illinoise,usa

Citation:Entropy increasing energy decreasing domains in space between convex and concave resonance: for accceleration: a new hydrodynamics theory.Hydrodynamic instabilities and stream line to turbulence contributing a typical pressure difference that form the cavity plates requiring investigation. In between hot and cold temperature points there must be Peltier effect for a new propulsion system

Entropy is the unavailability of systems energy to do the work.In a closed system increase in entropy is accompanied by decrease in energy. Entropy can be measured as a form of disorder and if the entropy is more, more will be the disorder. Increase in entropy is another way of stating the second law of thermodynamics. There must be cold and hot temperature pointing to Peltier effect and flow of thermal electrons during such a resonance operated. Electrons, when they reach a nucleon after going through the electron barrier in an atom, can, at the right frequency, reverse the spin axis of the nucleon. If over fifty per cent of the nucleons in the object are reversed, the object will levitate away

Self generating resonance and oscillation of Tsunami waves producing amplification at Nyquist infinity calls for a new resonance pump that may pump water at infinite force requiring an investigation. This gives an antigravity propulsion

Consider the linear single input-linear single output system with the following transfer function:

where it is assumed that the degree of the polynomial does not exceed that of the polynomial (i.e. is a proper rational function). The original Nyquist criterion gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of the closed-loop system with unity feedback . This is done in terms of the complex-valued function of the real variable (the amplitude-phase characteristic of the open-loop system) which describes a curve in the complex -plane, known as the Nyquist diagram. Suppose that the characteristic polynomial of the open-loop system has , , roots with positive real part and roots with negative real part. The Nyquist criterion is as follows: The closed-loop system is stable if and only if the Nyquist diagram encircles the point in the counter-clockwise sense times. (An equivalent formulation is: The vector drawn from to the point describes an angle in the positive sense as goes from to .)

When energy is removed from a system (for example in binding energy, or the energy given off by an atomic bomb) then mass is always removed along with the energy. This energy retains the missing mass, which will in turn be added to any other system which absorbs it. In this situation E = mc2 can be used to calculate how much mass goes along with the removed energy. It also tells how much mass will be added to any system which later absorbs this energy.

Einstein’s fomula to be modified at squre root 2 c velocity.

m=m0 /√ 1-v2/c2 critically enhancing an interesting i mass a point of mass disappearance analogous to blackhole region at √2 c velocity. Einstein himself suggested in later years that it may be misleading to consider the concept of the relativistic mass. He suggested that it may be better to apply the Lorentz Factor to the momentum instead.

Zero-point energy is the energy that remains when all other energy is removed from a system. This behaviour is demonstrated by, for example, liquid helium. As the temperature is lowered to absolute zero, helium remains a liquid, rather than freezing to a solid, owing to the irremovable zero-point energy of its atomic motions. (Increasing the pressure to 25 atmospheres will cause helium to freeze.) Electromagnetic radiation can be pictured as waves flowing through space at the speed of light. The waves are not waves of anything substantive, but are ripples in a state of a theoretically defined field. However these waves do carry energy (and momentum), and each wave has a specific direction, frequency and polarization state. Each wave represents a ”propagating mode of the electromagnetic field.”

The cavity between such plates cannot sustain all modes of the electromagnetic field. In particular wavelengths comparable to the plate separation and longer are excluded from the region between the plates. This fact leads to the situation that there is a zero-point radiation overpressure outside the plates which acts to push the plates together. This can be considered analogous to radiation pressure (radiation pressure from the Sun pushes comet tails away from the comet nucleus), and the resulting effect is now called the Casimir force. It has the property of increasing in strength with the inverse fourth power of the plate separation. The force ceases when elements of the plates come into contact, the surface smoothness of the plates being a limiting factor, or when the plates are so close that the corresponding zero-point radiation wavelengths no longer ”see” a perfectly conducting surface. The actual noncontinuous nature of the plates, as opposed to the true surface and molecular nature of the materials, becomes an important factor for very short distances.

The concept of converting some amount of zero-point energy to usable energy cannot be ruled out in principle. Zero-point energy is not a thermal reservoir, and therefore does not suffer from the thermodynamic injunction against extracting energy from a lower temperature reservoir.

Zero-point energy behaves differently. For ordinary radiation, the ratio of pressure to energy density is w=1/3c2, which is customarily expressed in units whereby c=1, and thus the ratio is expressed as w=+1/3. But for zero-point energy the ratio is w=-1. This is owing to the circumstance that the zero-point energy density is assumed to be constant: no matter how much the universe expands it does not become diluted, but instead more zero-point energy is assumed to be created out of nothing.

But a collapse occurs at 1.414c due to opposite spin velocity out of relative velocity which is always possible. The mass disappears into space but a critical stage at which it becomes an accelerator. As it swings between c1 and c 1.414. A further peculiarity is that a ratio of w=-1 implies that the zero-point energy exerts a negative pressure which, counter-intuitively, leads to an expansion of space-time.

First, since the fluctuations occur at the speed of light, then at this level the electron would have to be massless, mass arising at some higher level of motion. Secondly, the fluctuations smear out the average position over a volume the Compton radius in size, which suggests a physical interpretation of the wave function and the associated probability density. (Scattering experiments indicate that the electron is far smaller than its Compton size, indeed point-like for all we know.) Thirdly, simulations that have recently been done show that if such a massless

Sankaravelayudahn Nandakumar of behalf of MET Engineering College R&D Wing.

[1] L. V. AHLFORS, Complex Analysis, McGraw-Hill (New York), 1966.

[2] B. BENNET, A History of Control Engineering 1800-1930, Peter Peregrinus

(London), 1979.

[3] B. BENNET, A History of Control Engineering 1930-1955, Peter Peregrinus

(London), 1993.

[4] H. W. BODE, “Feedback—The history of an idea,” In Proceedings of the

Symposium on Active Networks and Feedback Systems, Polytechnic Institute

of Brooklyn, New York, 1960.

[5] R. KOCHENBURGER, “Frequency response method for analysis of a relay

servomechanism,” Trans. AIEE, 69:270-283, 1950.

[6] L. A. MACCOLL, Fundamental theory of servomechanisms, Van Nostrand

(Princeton, NJ), 1945.

[7] A. G. J. MACFARLANE AND I. POSTLETHWAITE, “The generalized Nyquist

stability criterion and multivariable root loci,” Internal. J. Contr, 25:81-

127,1977.

[8] J. C. MAXWELL, “On governors,” Proc. Royal Society of London, 16:270-

283, 1868. Also published in “Mathematical Trends in Control Theory”

edited by R. Bellman and R. Kalaba, Dover Publications, New York, 1964,

pp. 3-17.

[9] N. MINORSKY, “Directional stability of automatically steered bodies,” / .

Amer. Soc. of Naval Engineers, 34(2):280-309, 1922.

[10] A. B. STODOLA, “IJber die Regulierung von Turbinen,” Schweitzer Bauzeitung,

22:113-117, 121-122, 126-128, 134-135, 1893.

[11] M. TOLLE, Die Regulung der Kraftmaschinen, Springer (Berlin), 1905.

[12] A. TUSTIN, “The effects of backlash and of speed-dependent friction on

the stability of closed-cycle control systems,” / . Inst. Elec. Engrs. Pt. HA,

94:143-151, 1947.

Nyquist criterion in understanding a new propulsion system:

MET Engineering college research team with research application has found out a new propulsion system using Nyquist criteria self amplification by analogy with Tsunamy wave amplification at critical frequency of resonance of amplification as per the guide line of GH Milley prof.Illinoise University,usa. A combinatorial maglev properties aligned wit self amplification.

Xenondiflouride-bismuth spinors using laser staetched and compre

Xenon diflouride- bismuth compressed spin opposing rotation at z axis twisters forming the super cloud forces of new aerodynamic propulsion systems:

Xenon diflouride as condensed liquid mixed with bismuth as compressed liquid may be used as an important fuel using palladium electrode that may give out enormous energy. This really gives a Bossonova spinors during combustion giving out enormous gain amplified energy which could be tried in aerospace vehicles.

Zero pint Nyquist energy reversal points at water affined and air affined spinor Bossonova above and under the sea as well as Bossonova-tornado twisters can be replicated in Xenon diflouride-bismuth gas spin opposing rotations to realize a new propulsion system.

Citation: Our problem is to understanding the self generating energy amplification between -1,0 and +1,0 a reversal dynamical frequency shifts of spinning between spin opposing z dynamics of open loop instability gaining energy from environmental solar rays in forming a Nyquist Bossonova requires some investigation at segmental frequency spin selective poles along the opposite spin rings for infinite M gain that is what is happening there.

In Tiny Supercooled Clouds, Physicists Exchange Light and Matter for z dynamical blue Cerenkov radiation transformation as left handed lock-up nature of Bose Einstein condensate could be quantum teleported at a faster rate using matter wave Cerenov algorithm as stroboscopic mass transfer dynamics a well as critically realized to disappear at z zone of square root 2c of opposite spins which will be our future quantum dynamic revolution says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar based on the three plane shuffling matrix of cos theta,0,sin theta,-sin theta brutal chaotic chaos algorithm . This algorithm could be used to stimulate a new rotational dynamics of enormous energy gain which will be our future propulsion systems says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar of Cape Renewable Energy research center.

There must be of the z dynamical disappearance of matter waves at Cerenkov radiation with doping of NI negative refractive index metamaterials vapour with bismuth –germanium doping as Bose condensate optic gas that as a worm hole spinning dynamics can be replicated to realize the fast quantum matter wave propulsion systems using laser beams.

self focusing by intensity convergence to keep the intensity of laser pulses produce below the threshold of nonlinear effects of ellipsoidal inversionto circular convergence to divergence forms the sin algorithm.

The ellipsoidal to circular squeezing by high frequency to low frequency resonance lead could be shifted for a stretch at low frequency leading. Thus intensity variations occur at (delta=lambda/sin theta) for zero and 1 confines resonance between zeroThus the sin sin and ninety degree.

A built in algorithm in the gas medium may be protective intensive energy gain amplification. The differentiated n-s poles formed around differentiate the axial interval and the ellipsoidal to circular inversion algorithm.convergence to divergence forms the sin

Nine point overhang algorithm for Tsunami force scattering:

An iterative algorithm that can be designed for implementation using cos theta,sin theta,-sin theta convergence and a modification for tracing the Nyquist forces which requires the number of iterations which means a switching activity of connection and disconnection which could be controlled .But with Jacobi mu rotations of CORDIC architecture a parallel iterative algorithm at midpoint tracing using NINE point circle using wave tracing middle point algorithm for tracing the nine midpoint tracing by triangular orthogonal diagonalisation and mid point tracing that can be carried out using fast blue slaggar force. By a combination of implicit surface transformation of overhanging vector field between-1,0 and +1,0 as Double hung Bossonova resonance that could be shifted in Tsunami water affined Bossonova along the sea shore .

The number and height of the tsunami waves hitting the shoreline depends critically on the shape of the initial surface wave in deep water. It is possible to work out whether a ‘trough’ or a ‘peak’ is the leading wave. In the case of a trough then the familiar sight of the tide suddenly going out is the precursor to an approaching tsunami. it is possible to use the initial wave pattern to work out how the wave will evolve and, importantly, how it might interact with the complicated motions close inshore to produce Overhang algorithm application in shifting for higher energy forces:

How far off the edge of the table can we reach by Overhang algorithm to shift the Tornado –moisture gas of Xenon-bismuth-rubidium combinations and forces using Blue-slaggar stacking n identical, homogeneous, frictionless blocks of length 1? A classical solution achieves an overhang asymptotic to x= n 1/21/2 ln n. This solution is widely believed to be optimal. Weshow, however, that it is exponentially far from optimality by constructing simple n block stacks that achieve an overhang of cn 1/3 for some constant c > 0.

To determine the forces exerted on or by a block A Nyquist spinors by erre blue slagger force into the Tsunamy area the water Bossonova forces can be shifted else where , a stack like the one shown on the left is decomposed into single blocks (shown on the right). Adhering gravity, each of these blocks has a downwards directed weight force FW. In addition, there are forces exerted between the blocks, summed up to resulting forces that act on a certain point of the contact surface and for each of these forces exists an exact counterforce(F1, F2, F3).

In Tiny Supercooled Clouds, Physicists Exchange Light and Matter for z dynamical blue Cerenkov radiation transformation as left handed lock-up nature of Bose Einstein condensate could be quantum teleported at a faster rate using matter wave Cerenov algorithm as stroboscopic mass transfer dynamics a well as critically realized to disappear at z zone of square root 2c of opposite spins which will be our future quantum dynamic revolution says Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar based on the three plane shuffling matrix of cos theta,0,sin theta,-sin theta brutal chaotic chaos algorithm .The z dynamical disappearance of matter waves at Cerenkov radiation with doping of NI negative refractive index metamaterials vapour with bismuth –germanium doping as Bose condensate optic lattice can be replicated to realize the fast quantum matter wave replication and transformation with a controlled N.I refractive reversals this could be controlled for piezoelectric applications also.

Laser stimulated z dynamical squeezing and expansion and compression may assist such a propulsion systems.

A necessary and sufficient condition for the stability of a linear closed-loop system formulated in terms of properties of the open-loop system.

Consider the linear single input-linear single output system with the following transfer function:

where it is assumed that the degree of the polynomial does not exceed that of the polynomial (i.e. is a proper rational function). The original Nyquist criterion gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the stability of the closed-loop system with unity feedback . This is done in terms of the complex-valued function of the real variable (the amplitude-phase characteristic of the open-loop system) which describes a curve in the complex -plane, known as the Nyquist diagram. Suppose that the characteristic polynomial of the open-loop system has , , roots with positive real part and roots with negative real part. The Nyquist criterion is as follows: The closed-loop system is stable if and only if the Nyquist diagram encircles the point in the counter-clockwise sense times. (An equivalent formulation is: The vector drawn from to the point describes an angle in the positive sense as goes from to .)

Self generating resonance oscillation of Tsunami waves producing amplification at Nyquist infinity calls for a new resonance pump that may pump water at infinite force requiring an investigation. This gives an antigravity propulsion systems using Xenon diflouride

To travel to our neighboring stars as practically as envisioned by science fiction, breakthroughs in science are required. One of these breakthroughs is to discover a self-contained means of propulsion that requires no propellant. To chart a path toward such a discovery, seven hypothetical space drives are presented to illustrate the specific unsolved challenges and associated research objectives toward this ambition. One research objective is to discover a means to asymmetrically interact with the electromagnetic fluctuations of the vacuum. Another is to develop a physics that describes inertia, gravity, or the properties of spacetime as a function of electromagnetics that leads to using electromagnetic technology for inducing propulsive forces. Another is to determine if negative mass exists or if its properties can be synthesized. An alternative approach that covers the possibility that negative mass might not exist is to develop a formalism of Mach’s Principle or reformulate ether concepts to lay a foundation for addressing reaction forces and conservation of momentum with space drives.

Levitation is rising, rather than falling, of objects, the opposite of gravitation. It has been shown that gravitation is due to the spin of nucleons. If they spin in the opposite direction, with respect to the Earth, levitation will occur. Electrons, when they reach a nucleon after going through the electron barrier in an atom, can, at the right frequency, reverse the spin axis of the nucleon. If over fifty per cent of the nucleons in the object are reversed, the object will levitate away from the Earth’s surface. If it is less than fifty per cent, the object merely loses weight.”

The following movie demonstrates the loss of weight of an object on a balance scale. A plastic case containing brass screws rises when the switch is on and falls when it is shut off. It will repeat as many times as the switch is turned on and off and instantly reacts. The second picture shows a block of wood doing the same thing. These are placed close to the electron source while the opposite side of the scale is further away and any effect on it is minimized by the inverse square law. This, of course, goes down when the target goes up. Note that the two pointers are even when balanced and when the target gets lighter its pointer goes up while its opposite goes down. This reverses when the switch is shut off and they come to balance again.[They can be seen on each side of the center scale]

This is all done without the solid state power supply, special coil and other equipment needed to lift heavier weights. The only power used was for a small two and one half inch diameter electric motor. The electron generator in this demonstration is not powerful enough to drive the electrons farther than just shallow penetration, but it is enough to show that levitation can be accomplished on demand which is necessary to be able to harness it. Once equipment is used to drive the electrons further so that they penetrate deeply enough into the atom, weight will have no limit since the force comes from the angular momentum of the nucleon, itself, [just as gravitation causes objects to drive themselves down] and so the more weight, the more nucleons there are and thus the more force to lift the extra weight, a minute fraction of which is enough to maintain the spin orientation of the nucleon

This is as if entering a space spinning of square root c to enter into i mass resonance and backwards by a reversal spinning.

Sankaravelayudahn Nandakumar of behalf of MET Engineering College R&D Wing.

Pulsating protection against missiles by Pendry’s magneticfield invisibility cloaking dynamics.

So, the picture certainly gets more complex regarding just how geometries of electromagnetic fields may cause changes in the overall forces of nature that are modulated from higher dimensional time domains. This higher dimensional interaction makes for greater amounts of information to be compacted into tight strings of extreme frequencies that may enable all sorts of break throughs in FTL technological innovations in the future. Just how time domains interact can be glimpsed in the bizarre experiments by John Hutchison:

Sankaravelayudahn Nandakumar of behalf of MET Engineering College R&D Wing.

[1] L. V. AHLFORS, Complex Analysis, McGraw-Hill (New York), 1966.

[2] B. BENNET, A History of Control Engineering 1800-1930, Peter Peregrinus

(London), 1979.

[3] B. BENNET, A History of Control Engineering 1930-1955, Peter Peregrinus

(London), 1993.

[4] H. W. BODE, “Feedback—The history of an idea,” In Proceedings of the

Symposium on Active Networks and Feedback Systems, Polytechnic Institute

of Brooklyn, New York, 1960.

[5] R. KOCHENBURGER, “Frequency response method for analysis of a relay

servomechanism,” Trans. AIEE, 69:270-283, 1950.

[6] L. A. MACCOLL, Fundamental theory of servomechanisms, Van Nostrand

(Princeton, NJ), 1945.

[7] A. G. J. MACFARLANE AND I. POSTLETHWAITE, “The generalized Nyquist

stability criterion and multivariable root loci,” Internal. J. Contr, 25:81-

127,1977.

[8] J. C. MAXWELL, “On governors,” Proc. Royal Society of London, 16:270-

283, 1868. Also published in “Mathematical Trends in Control Theory”

edited by R. Bellman and R. Kalaba, Dover Publications, New York, 1964,

pp. 3-17.

[9] N. MINORSKY, “Directional stability of automatically steered bodies,” / .

Amer. Soc. of Naval Engineers, 34(2):280-309, 1922.

[10] A. B. STODOLA, “IJber die Regulierung von Turbinen,” Schweitzer Bauzeitung,

22:113-117, 121-122, 126-128, 134-135, 1893.

[11] M. TOLLE, Die Regulung der Kraftmaschinen, Springer (Berlin), 1905.

[12] A. TUSTIN, “The effects of backlash and of speed-dependent friction on

the stability of closed-cycle control systems,” / . Inst. Elec. Engrs. Pt. HA,

94:143-151, 1947.

KJ.A

Nyquist criterion in understanding a new propulsion system:for space vehicles [Incident: 120413-000050]nerws@nature.com

A long-time staple of science fiction is the tractor beam, a technology in which light is used to move massive objects — recall the tractor beam in the movie Star Wars that captured the Millennium Falcon and pulled it into the Death Star. While tractor beams of this sort remain science fiction, beams of light today are being used to mechanically manipulate atoms or tiny glass beads, with rapid progress being made to control increasingly larger objects. Those who see major roles for opto-mechanical systems in a host of future technologies will take heart in the latest results from a first-of-its-kind experiment.

If an optical cavity is of ultrahigh quality and the mechanical resonator element within is atomic-sized and chilled to nearly absolute zero, the resulting cavity optomechanical system can be used to detect even the slightest mechanical motion. Likewise, even the tiniest fluctuations in the light/vacuum can cause the atoms to wiggle. Changes to the light can provide control over that atomic motion. This not only opens the door to fundamental studies of quantum mechanics that could tell us more about the “classical” world we humans inhabit, but also to quantum information processing, ultrasensitive force sensors, and other technologies that might seem like science fiction today.

Light will build-up inside of an optical cavity at specific resonant frequencies, similar to how a held-down guitar string only vibrates to produce specific tones. Positioning a mechanical resonator inside the cavity changes the resonance frequency for light passing through, much as sliding one’s fingers up and down a guitar string changes its vibrational tones. Meanwhile, as light passes through the optical cavity, it acts like a tiny tractor beam, pushing and pulling on the mechanical resonator

Berkeley Lab researchers directly observed quantum optical effects — amplification and ponderomotive squeezing — in an optomechanical system. Here the yellow/red regions show amplification, the blue regions show squeezing. On the left is the data, on the right is the theoretical prediction in the absence of noise.

“We’ve shown for the first time that the quantum fluctuations in a light field are responsible for driving the motions of objects much larger than an electron and could in principle drive the motion of really large objects,”

Light and matter, when the minuscule scales of single particles are reached, behave in surprising ways in a part of physics known as quantum mechanics. Working with light and matter on this level would have been unthinkable before the pair developed solutions to pick, manipulate and measure photons and ions individually, allowing an insight into a microscopic world that was once just the province of scientific theory. Based on pioneering work by Albert Einstein and Max Planck more than a hundred years ago, it is known that light carries momentum that pushes objects away. In addition, the intensity that varies across a laser beam can be used to push objects sideways, and for example can be used to move cells in biotechnology applications. Pulling an object towards an observer, however, has so far proven to be elusive. In 2011, researchers theoretically demonstrated a mechanism where light movement can be controlled using two opposing light beams — though technically, this differs from the idea behind a tractor beam. now studied the properties of lasers with a particular type of distribution of light intensity across the beam, or so-called Bessel beams. Usually, if a laser beam hits a small particle in its path, the light is scattered backwards, which in turn pushes the particle forward. What Wang and co-workers have now shown theoretically for Bessel beams is that for particles that are sufficiently small, the light scatters off the particle in a forward direction, meaning that the particle itself is pulled backwards towards the observer. In other words, the behaviour of the particle is the direct opposite of the usual scenario. The size of the tractor beam force depends on parameters such as the electrical and magnetic properties of the particles focused two laser beams with a specific frequency into a cavity containing a silicon wafer that acted as a “loss medium.” The wafer aligned the light waves in such a way that they became perfectly trapped, bouncing back and forth indefinitely until they were eventually absorbed and transformed into heat..

Their work has implications for light-based clocks far more precise than the atomic clocks at the heart of the world’s business systems, and quantum computing, which may – or may not – revolutionise desktop computing as we know i

But for physicists, the import of the pair’s techniques is outlined in a layman’s summary on the Nobel site: they preserve the delicate quantum mechanical states of the photons and ions – states that theorists had for decades hoped to measure in the laboratory, putting the ideas of quantum mechanics on a solid experimental footing.

Those include the slippery quantum mechanical ideas of “entanglement” – the seemingly ethereal connection between two distant particles that underpins much work on the “uncrackable codes” of quantum cryptography – and of “decoherence”, in which the quantum nature of a particle slowly slips away through its interactions with other matter.

Prof Sir Peter Knight of the UK’s Institute of Physics, said: “Haroche and Wineland have made tremendous advances in our understanding of quantum entanglement, with beautiful experiments to show how atomic systems can be manipulated to exhibit the most extraordinary coherence properties.”

Humans think though development of a picture of the minds eye. So even though spin, particle are just names that have nothing to what the math equations are talking about. By simply naming – gives people the idea that these ‘things’ that the math equations are referring to actually do have spin, and mass – which they don’t.

“The term ‘particle’ survives in modern physics, but very little of its classical meaning remains. A particle can now best be defined as the conceptual carrier of a set of variates. . . It is also conceived as the occupant of a state defined by the same state of variates. . .It might seem desirable to distinguish the ‘mathematical fictions’ from ‘actual particles’; but it is difficult to find any logical basis for such a distinction. ‘Discovering’ a particle mean observing certain effects which are accepted as proof of its existence.”

hat’s why the names mislead the ordinary person on the street with misconceptions. The odd names just made matters worse. Quarks are known as flavors: up, down, charm, strange, top, and bottom. Doesn’t help to understand it – does it? That because we are animals that instinctively used familiar ideas to graft unknown and new idea upon them, inherently distorting with our brain’s lenses.

One of the earliest proposed possibilities for FTL travel involved a hypothetical particle called a tachyon, capable of tunnelling past the speed of light barrier. This turned out to be more of a mathematical artifact rather than an actual physical particle.”

These long posts are full of remarkable stuff! But I’m not sure they’re relevant to the article on jet engines. Example: “There must be of the z dynamical disappearance of matter waves at Cerenkov radiation with doping of NI negative refractive index metamaterials vapour with bismuth –germanium doping as Bose condensate optic gas that as a worm hole spinning dynamics can be replicated to realize the fast quantum matter wave propulsion systems using laser beams.” Wow! that’s what happens inside a jet engine?

Strange universal theory of hologram observed in General quantum mechanical theory along the plane of hologram applicable to any binary system formation out of coherent field coupled two fields of opposite phases and their collapse into single and this is applicable even in case of Blackhole: outcome of 2012 Nobel prize in physics

In physics, the ‘holographic principle’ is a property described in string theory. It represents a volume of space whose entire information can be imagined as encoded on a boundary of that selected space. The holographic principle started by first observing black hole thermodynamics. There, it was noticed that the informational content of all the objects that got sucked in by the hole can be seen in a scaled sense on the hole’s event Serge Haroche is a professor at the Collège de France and Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. He shared the 8m-kronor prize with David J Wineland of the US National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Colorado, Boulder. The citation from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said they won “for groundbreaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems” through reflective mirrors.But their works require further production of genetic hologram the transfer dynamics from negative mirror to positive mirror.

Though it may look strange the outcome seems to be two positive and negative mirrors of human body that one survives even after death.The negative genetic mirror is always operative bring out the human bodty in full form in the form of genetic hologram.The Nobel laureates have seeded the point of rebirth even after death unknowingly

A coherent field coupled to single atom collapses into super position of two fields opposite phases a dual and then single Atom collapses into a superposition of two fields with opposite phases phase shift per photon can be as large as pi phase. White dwarfs that merge under the influence of gravitational waves have been suspected to be related to a variety of phenomena. Although not being the most popular model for type Iasupernovae, white dwarf mergers have despite several ups and downs defended their position asa serious, possible progenitor model (Iben & Tutukov 1984; Webbink 1984; Yoon et al. 2007).

Quantum mechanical mass transfer dynamics between two white dwarfs: Thus one can visualize magnetic attraction and repulsion as streams of photons with their corkscrew shaped wave functions screwing into (attraction) or screwing out of (repulsion) each other. Now you can visualize that forces do indeed arise from an exchange of particles, or their wave functions. It has been suggested that these streams of virtual photons travel along the magnetic lines of force. Because higher frequencies have more energy (E=hf), they deliver more mass (E=mc2). Einstein understood that light quanta (photons) are a mass transfer mechanism. The flux quanta (flowing particles) or photon exchange frequency is thus mass in motion and is the force of a magnetic field. The frequency and number of photons exchanged must be extremely high to exert physical attraction or repulsion. contains a photo of magnetic vortices labeled “Seeing flux quanta” and states “Where same directional repulsion produces an attraction as two oppositely directed magnetization streams merge, they produce vortices with quantum tunneling in between Einstein stated, “The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high”. The energy density is strongest where the lines of force are around a magnet, so that is where the most virtual photons should be.

Even Neurons of brain will be activating in the same way as observed in genetic hologram of palm print deciding the brain activity by the brain line in between mercury and moon emissions along the genetic plane of hologram.

Sankaravelayudhan Nandakumar Oxford astrogeneticist

Mas disappearance into space:Einstein’s theory can not be applied directly on Exotic phase changes observed-reg

Einstein formula m=mo/√1-v2/c2 can not be expressed or evaluated directly says Sankara Velayudhan Nandakumar as Exotic phase transitions to build his theory of gravity to be reevaluated supporting American New science requirement is surprisingly observed.For instance, at low temperatures liquid helium’s properties change dramatically, becoming a “superfluid” that can overcome friction. In fact, we are for co-opted the mathematics of exotic phase transitions to build our theory of gravity along the 12 magneto optic quantum sectors of space breaking the symmetry always along the plane of hologram. Mass changes to invisible disappearance at square √ root c velocity (1.414c) instead of further increase in mass to infinity at c velocity. Lower algorithm interpreted: This also comparable with Einstein’s formula m=mo/square root of 1- v2-c2 and mass vanishes at square root 2 c velocity by opposite spins for a funnelling does not explain properly the cross polarised dynamics involved. Quantum mechanics has yet to be reevaluated as I mass imaginary plane as m=mo/i as a n interpretation of mo= im that disappears at the extremities of algorithmic interpretation based on cross polarised neutral plane of fast acceleration and disappearance of mass and realizing it outside a barrier, at the guiding point of a pilot matte wave c2/f and the lower algorithm f ,frequency tending to zero may involved in shifting the electron gun waves into and imaginary plane and realizing it back as real electron after crossing a barrier as part of the trick played by David copper field magic. The results of a recent experiment at CERN, the giant particle accelerator near Geneva, seem to attack one of physics’ sacred cows: Albert Einstein’s postulate that nothing can travel faster than the speed